Monday, April 6, 2009

HP-UX SYTEM ADMINISTRATION

HP-UX Overview and Command Summary
HP-UX 11i (Hewlett Packard Unix) is Hewlett-Packard's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). It runs on the HP 9000 PA-RISC-based range of processors and HP Integrity Intel's Itanium-based systems, and was also available for later Apollo/Domain systems. Earlier versions also ran on the HP 9000 Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor architecture.

HP-UX was the first Unix to use access control lists for file access permissions rather than the standard Unix permissions system. HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to include a built-in logical volume manager. HP has had a long partnership with VERITAS, and they use VxFS as their primary file system. For legacy as well as technical reasons, however, the file system used for the boot kernel remained Hi Performance FileSystem (HPFS; a variant of UFS) until the release of version 11.23 and so this older technology has continued to receive support from HP.

Identifying the Version of the HP-UX Operating System


The internal name for HP-UX 11i is reported by the uname command with the -r option. The external and
internal names for the HP-UX 11i operating system are shown here.
.

HP-UX 11i B.11.11
HP-UX 11i v 1.5 B.11.20
HP-UX 11i v 1.6 B.11.22
HP-UX 11i v 2 B.11.23


The current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 with Update 3 (0809). HP-UX 11i v3 currently is credited with leadership in observed performance, high availability and manageability.[1] Version 3 of the HP-UX 11i operating system will scale as follows:

128 processor cores
2 TB main memory
32 TB maximum file system
16 TB maximum file size
100 million ZB storage



Key Points
HP-UX operating systems are based on the UNIX operating
system, the HP-UX stems from the System V version which was developed at the University of California at Berkeley. Some basic key points follow:

• The kernel of an HP-UX system is in the /stand directory.

• The file used to resolve hostname to IP under HP-UX is /etc/nsswitch.conf

• HP-UX features a pseudo-swap reservation policy.

• Allow you to tune some kernel parameters.

• The secure ttys database is /etc/securetty for HP-UX


Available Operating Environments (UX 11i onwards)

HP-UX 11i Operating Environment

This OE, a no-charge Internet server environment ie app-ache,netscape

HP-UX 11i Enterprise OE

This OE is an extra-cost package

HP-UX 11i Mission Critical OE

MC/ServiceGuard

Technical segment

HP-UX 11i Minimal Technical OE

This OE includes the Netscape, NDS, Perl,

HP-UX 11i Technical Computing OE

HP-UX System Administration Commands


Ioscan :- The ioscan command scans system hardware, usable I/O system devices, or kernel I/O system data structures as appropriate, and lists the results. By default, the ioscan command displays the hardware path to the hardware module, the class of the hardware module, and a brief description for each hardware module on the system

Use -k option to display the kernel hardware tree

Sudo:- The HP-UX support a third party application named sudo, which allows a given user, specified in a file named /etc/sudo, to execute a command as the superuser or as another user

Archiving Commands

make_recovery:- This command allows you to create a backup image of the system boot disk and to restore the system boot image from the backup

check_recovery:- This command checks the backup tape, created with the make_recovery command, to the current system and reports discrepancies.

dd :-It is particularly useful for disk to tape and disk to disk copying.

dump and rdump, restore and rrestore commands

These standard UNIX utilities copy and restore files either locally or remotely over a network .dump and rdump commands are used to dump local files

fbackup and frecover:- The fbackup and frecover commands are the proprietary scheme for backing up files on the HP-UX operating system. syntax of the fbackup command is:

fbackup -f device [-0-9] [-u] [-i path ] [-e path ] The -f option is mandatory because fbackup does not write to stdout by default. The [0-9] option provides for incremental backups: an n level backup includes all files modified since the last n-1 level backup.

The -e and -i options allow you to exclude or include, respectively, portions of the file system in the archive

pax :-This standard UNIX command extracts, writes, and lists members of archive files. It also copies files and directory hierarchies

tar :-This command is the most widely used facility for archiving files on UNIX systems. Be aware of the use of the hyphen (-) character to designate a command flag rather than a function key,. There are some options they are:

-A suppresses warning messages that tar did not archive a file’s access control list.

-e causes tar to fail if the extent attributes are print in the files to be archived.

-N writes a POSIX format archive, allowing file names of up to 256 characters.

-O writes a pre-POSIX format archive.

-V causes tar to work silently and, when used with the -t option, to print a letter indicating

the type of archived file.

-nd to specify a particular nine-track tape drive and density, where n is a tape drive

number and d is the density

vgcfgbackup:- This command saves the LVM configuration for a volume group in a default or alternate configuration backup file

vgcfgrestore :-This command restores the LVM configuration data from a default configuration backup file

vxdump, rvxdump, vxrestore, and rvxrestore commands :-These commands are proprietary to the HP-UX operating system and are the archival strategy for the VxFS file system.The vxdump command copy to magnetic tape all files in the VxFS filesystem that have been changed after a certain date. This information is derived from the files /vary/dam/dump dates and /etc/stab. Likewise the rvxdump command accomplishes the same task, but remotely over the network. The vxrestore and rvxrestore commands read the archive tape created with vxdump or rvxdump, respectively, and restore the files locally and remotely


Crash Dumps Configuration


crashconf :-The crashconf command displays and/or changes the current system crash dump configuration. The crash dump configuration consists of three lists:

• The crash dump device list, which identifies all devices that can be used to store a crash dump.

• The included class list, which identifies all system memory classes that must be included in any crash dump.

• The excluded class list, which identifies all system memory classes that should be excluded from a crash dump.

crashutil :-The crashutil command copies and preserves crash dump data, and performs format conversions on it

savecrash :-The savecrash command saves the crash dump information of the system (assuming one was made when the system crashed) and writes a reboot message in the shutdown log file


Devices Management

Location of Device Special Files


Terminals /dev/ (/dev/ttyXX)
Modems /dev/
Printers / dev/ (/dev/lpN)
Disks (Block devices) /dev/dsk/
Disks (Character devices) /dev/rdsk/
LVM Volume Groups dev/vgnn/
LVM Logical volumes (Block devices) /dev/vgnn/lvolN
LVM Logical volumes (Character devices) /dev/vgnn/lrvolN
LSM Logical volumes (Block devices) N/A
LSM Logical volumes (Character devices) N/A
Cartridge Tape Drives (Character devices) /dev/rct/
Master pseudo terminal device files /dev/ptym/
Slave pseudo terminal device files /dev/pty/
Magneto-optical devices (Block devices) /dev/ac/
Magneto-optical devices (Character devices) /dev/rac/
Cartridge Tape Drives (Character devices) /dev/rct/
Master pseudo terminal device files /dev/ptym/
Slave pseudo terminal device files /dev/pty/
Magneto-optical devices (Character devices) /dev/rac/
Magneto-optical devices (Block devices) /dev/ac/
kernel pseudo-driver file, used by setboot /dev/kepd



diskinfo :-The HP-UX diskinfo command scans system hardware, usable I/O system devices, or kernel I/O system data structures, and lists the results

dmesg :-The HP-UX dmesg command examines a system buffer for recent diagnostic messages and displays them on the standard output

insf :-The HP-UX insf command installs special files in the devices directory, which is normally /dev. The insf command creates required subdirectories that are defined for the resulting special file.

lsdev :-The HP-UX lsdev command lists, one pair per line, the major device number and the associated driver name of the device drivers configured into the system and available for invocation through special files.

lssf :-The HP-UX lssf command lists information about a special file, that is, a device file. For each special file name, lssf determines the major number of the special file and whether it is block or character device special file. It then scans the system for the device that is associated with the special file

mknod:- This command creates the following types of files:

• Character device special file-These special files are used for devices that can transfer single bytes at a time, such as nine-track magnetic tape drives, printers, plotters, disk drives operating in “raw” mode, and terminals.

• Block device special file-Block device special files are used for devices, such as disk drives, that usually transfer a block of data at a time.

mksf :-This command makes a special file in the devices directory, normally /dev for an existing device, a device that has already been assigned an instance number by the system.

model :-This command displays the machine hardware model; it may also display the manufacturer, product names, or other information for the device.

rmsf :- This command removes one or more special files from the /dev device directory and potentially removes information about the associated device or devices with hardware type “DEVICE” from the system


Kernel Configuration


Under HP-UX, the kernel file is located in the /stand directory. The HP-UX kernel is built in the /stand/build directory using files in that directory, the /user/conf/master.d, and the /stand/dklm files

kconfig :-This command is the administrative command for HP-UX kernel configurations. When it is given without any options, it returns summary information about the currently running kernel configuration. It also features options that enable you to perform the following operations:

• force a backup of the currently running kernel configuration

• make a copy of the saved kernel configuration

• delete a specified saved kernel configuration and any files associated with it

• export the specified saved kernel configuration

• load the specified saved kernel configuration, overwriting any changes that were being held for next boot

• display all settings of the currently running configuration that are not at their default value

• change the title of the saved kernel configuration

kctune :-This command is the administrative command for HP-UX kernel tunable parameters. It gives information about tunable parameters and their values, and makes changes to tunable values

kcmodule :-This command is the administrative command for HP-UX kernel modules. It gives information about kernel modules and their usage, and makes changes to their usage

kcweb utility :-The kcweb utility is a web interface to configure the kernel. It helps to diagnose problems related to certain kernel parameters

mk_kernel command

The mk_kernel command builds an executable file which can be used as a bootable kernel and kernel modules (if any) are configured

sysdef command

The sysdef command analyzes the currently running system and reports on its tunable configuration parameters


Network Administration


Hostname:- To display name of the system

Ifconfig:-To display ip configuration of the system

lanadmin :-This HP-UX program administers and tests the Local Area Network (LAN). For each interface card, this command allows you to:

• Display and change the station address.

• Display and change the 802.5 Source Routing options (RIF).

• Display and change the maximum transmission unit (MTU).

• Display and change the speed setting.

• Clear the network statistics registers to zero.

• Display the interface statistics.

• Reset the interface card, thus executing its self-test

lanscan :-This command lanscan displays the following information about each LAN device that has software support on the system:

• Hardware Path

• Active Station Address (also known as Physical Address)

• Card Instance Number

• Hardware State

• Network Interface NamePPA

linkloop :-This command tests the connectivity of the local node and the remote node specified by each hardware station address

ndd :-This command allows the examination and modification of several tunable parameters that affect networking operation and behavior.

netfmt :-Use this HP-UX command to format binary trace and log data gathered from the network tracing and logging facility (nettl) and the kernel logging facility

nettl :-This command is a tool used to capture network events or packets. Logging is a means of capturing network activities such as state changes, errors, and connection establishment. Tracing is used to capture or take a snapshot of inbound and outbound packets going through the network, as well as loopback or header information.

netstat :- HP-UX operating system implement the netstat command to displays network statistics. There are differences in the options for each version:

HP-UX -g shows multicast information for network interfaces.

-v shows additional routing information.

ping :-The ping command uses the ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from the specified host or gateway host, where host is a network name or IP address. ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (pings) have an IP (Internet Protocol) and ICMP header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary number of pad bytes used to fill out the packet


Print System Management


accept :-This command permits the lp command to accept print requests for each named LP printer or printer class destination queue.

lp :-This command queues files for printing

lpadmin :-This command configures the LP spooler to describe printers, classes, and devices; it can be used to add and remove printers and change the default printer

lpfence :-This command defines the minimum required priority for the spooled file to be printed

lpmove :-This command moves print requests, which were queued by the lp command, from one printer to another

lpsched :-This command schedules print requests originated with the lp command; lpsched is invoked by /sbin/rc, which creates a background process that runs until lpshut is executed

lpshut:- This command shuts down the line printer scheduler.

lpstat :-This command displays the status of all requests made by the lp and lpr commands

reject :-This command permits the lp command to reject subsequent print requests for each named destination queue; printing requests that are already queued continue to be processed


Process Management


fuser :-The fuser command lists the process identifiers (PIDs) of those processes that have one or more specified files or file structures open There are subtle differences in the command output..

iostat :-The iostat command reports the following Input/Output statistics:

• the number of characters read and written per second for terminals (collectively)

• the number of transfers per second for each disk

• the number of kilobytes transferred per second for each disk

• the percentage of time the system spent

— in user mode,

— in user mode running low priority (nice) processes,

— in system mode, and

— idling.

Nice:- The nice command lets you run a specified command at a lower (time-share) priority. The C Shell has a built-in version of this command.

kill :-The kill command sends a signal to one or more running processes; the default is to send the SIGTERM signal (signal number 15), which usually terminates processes that do not ignore or catch the signal. The HP-UX version of this command was updated so that -s precedes the signal name or signal number.

killall :-The killall command sends a KILL signal to all processes started by the user, except the calling process. The default is to terminate those processes. When started by the superuser, the killall command kills all processes that can be terminated, except those processes that started it, the kernel processes, and processes 0 and 1 (init).This command also may be used to send another, specified signal to the processes.

ps :-This command displays the current statistics for running processes, and reports CPU usage, the processor and processor set, and the scheduling priority. This command provides a snapshot of the system at the time the ps command is executed. Common use of the ps command is ps -elf on HP-UX

renice:- This command alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes.

sar :-The sar command reports the following:

• cumulative system activity, including CPU utilization,

• buffer activity,

• the transfer of data to and from devices,

• terminal activity,

• the number of specific system calls used,

• the amount of swapping and switching activity,

• the amount of switching activity,

• queue lengths,

top :-The top command provides continuous reports on the state of the system, including a list of the processes using the most CPU resources. The top command samples the system and continually updates its display; by contrast,

vmstat :-This commands displays information about process threads, virtual memory usage (page lists, page faults, page ins, and page outs), interrupts, and CPU usage (percentages of user, system, and idle times). First reported are the statistics since boot time; subsequent reports are the statistics since a specified interval of time.


Software Management


swacl :-The swacl command displays or modifies the Access Control Lists (ACLs). These ACLs protect the specified target selections (hosts, software depots or root file systems) and the specified software selections on each of the specified target selections (software depots only)

swconfig :-The swconfig command configures, or reconfigures installed software products for execution on the specified targets. The swconfig command transitions software between INSTALLED and CONFIGURED states

swcopy :-This command copies or merges software selections from a software source to one or more software depot target selections. These depots can then be accessed as a software source by the swinstall command

swinstall :-The swinstall command installs the software selections from a software source to either the local host or, in the case of the HP OpenView Software Distributor product, to one or more target selections (root file systems). By default, the software is configured for use on the target after it is installed. (The software is not configured when installed into an alternate root directory.)

swlist :-The swlist command displays information about software products installed at or available from the specified target selections, that is, depots. It supports these features:

• Specify bundles, products, sub products, and/or filesets to list.

• Display the files contained in each fileset.

• Display a table of contents from a software source.

• Specify the attributes to display for each software object.

• Display all attributes for bundles, products, subproducts, filesets and/or files.

• Display the full software specification to be used with software selections.

• Display the readme file for products.

• Display the depots on a specified host.

• Create a list of products, subproducts, and/or filesets to use as input to the other commands.

• List the categories of available or applied patches.

• List applied patches and their state (applied or committed).

swreg :-The swreg command controls the visibility of depots and roots to users who are performing software management tasks. It must be used to register depots created by swpackage

swremove :-The swremove command removes software selections from target selections (for example, root file systems)

swverify :-The swverify command verifies the software selections at one or more target selections


Storage and File System


Mounting and Unmounting File Systems

Hpux operating systems use the mount and umount commands to mount and unmount file systems respectively

Use the following general operator system commands for disks that are not under LVM or VxVM control:


diskinfo :-to describe the characteristics of a disk device
df :-to report the number of free file system disk blocks
du :-to summarize disk usage
quota :-to display disk usage and limits
Prealloc:- to preallocate disk storage



Use the following commands for disks under LVM control:


Pvdisplay:- to display properties of LVM disks (physical volumes)
Lvdisplay :-to display properties of LVM logical volumes
vgdisplay :-to display information about LVM volume groups



Use the following commands for disks under VERITAS Volume Manager (VxVM) control:


Vxdisk:- to display properties of VxVM disks
Vxdg:- to display properties of VxVM disk groups
Vxprint:- to display information about the VxVM configuration



dcopy :-The dcopy command copies an existing HFS file system (usually a character device) to a new HFS file system (preferably a block device), compressing directories by removing vacant entries and spacing consecutive blocks in a file by the optimal rotational gap. Both file systems should be unmounted.

Df:-The HP-UX df command displays the number of free 512-byte blocks and free inodes available for file systems by examining the counts kept in the superblock or superblocks. If a special or a directory is unspecified, the free space on all mounted file systems is displayed. If the arguments to df are path names, df reports on the file systems containing the named files. The -F option of the HP-UX df command designates the file system type.

edquota :-The edquota command, which is available on hpux operating systems, is a quota editor that allows you to add and modify user and group quotas and modify file system quota grace periods. Use the edquota command to display the existing quota information.

extendfs :- This commands used to extend file systems.Under HP-UX, the -F option allows you to specify the file system type that you are expanding; the command examines the /etc/default/fs file if that option is not given. Also, the HP-UX version of this command has an additional option that lets you query for the current size of the file system.

extendfs_hfs and extendfs_vxfs commands :-The extend_hfs and extend_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX extendfs command. They are used to extend an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

fsadm, fsadm_hfs, and fsadm_vxfs commands:-The fsadm command performs selected administration tasks on file systems. These tasks may differ between file system types. The fsadm_hfs and fsadm_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX fsadm command. They are used to administer an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

fsck

The fsck command is used to check file systems and repair them if necessary. The HP-UX version of the fsck command has an option (-F) with which you specify the file system type.

fsck_hfs and fsck_vxfs commands :-The fsck_hfs and fsck_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX fsck command. They are used to check and repair an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

fsclean :-The fsclean command reads the superblock of an HFS file system to determine whether that file system’s last shutdown was performed correctly.

fsdb :-The fsdb command is used to repair a damaged file system after a crash. There are few options, but they differ between the operating systems(hpux& tru64)

fsdb_hfs and fsdb_vxfs commands :-The fsdb_hfs and fsdb_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX fsdb command. They are used to debug and repair an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

mkdir :-The mkdir command creates directories that can be used for file system mountpoints.


lv* commands

The following commands are available for LVM operations on logical volumes:


lvchange :-Change LVM logical volume characteristics
lvcreate :-Create logical volume in LVM volume group
Lvdisplay:- Display information about LVM logical volumes
Lvextend:- Increase space, increase mirrors for LVM logical volume
lvlnboot :-Prepare LVM logical volume to be root, boot, primary swap, or dump volume
lvmerge :-Merge two LVM logical volumes into one logical volume
Lvmmigrate:- Prepare root file system for migration from partitions to LVM logical volumes
lvreduce :-Decrease space allocation or the number of mirror copies of logical volumes
lvremove :-Remove one or more logical volumes from LVM volume group
lvrmboot :-Remove LVM logical volume link to root, primary swap, or dump volume
lvsplit :-Split mirrored LVM logical volume into two logical volumes
lvsync :-Synchronize stale mirrors in LVM logical volumes



mkfs :-The HP-UX mkfs command creates a file system; the file system type is specified with the -F option.

mount :-The mount command is used to mount a file system, that is, to attach a file system to a directory (a mountpoint) so that the files on the mounted file system can be accessed. The file systems are unmounted with the umount command. Using the mount command without any options or arguments displays the currently mounted file systems. The options for this command vary between both operating systems; for example, the -F option under the HP-UX operating system specifies the file system type

mount_hfs and mount_vxfs commands:-The mount_hfs and mount_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX mount command. They are used to mount an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

newfs :-The newfs command is used to create a new file system on a disk. Specifically, the HP-UX version of this command creates an HFS or VxFS file system, as designated with the -F option, on a disk.

newfs_hfs and newfs_vxfs commands :-The newfs_hfs and newfs_vxfs commands are wrappers for the HP-UX newfs command. They create an HFS file system and a VxFS file system, respectively.

pfs_mount command :-The pfs_mount command is used to mount a CD-ROM.

pv* commands

The following commands are available for LVM operations on physical volumes:


pvchange :-Change characteristics and access path of physical volume in LVM volume group
pvckcheck :- or repair a physical volume in LVM volume group
pvcreate :-Create physical volume for use in LVM volume group
pvdisplay :-Display information about LVM physical volumes within LVM volume group
pvmove :-Move allocated physical extents from one LVM physical volume to other physical volumes
pvremove :-Remove LVM data structure from a physical volume



quotacheck command

The quotacheck command examines each of the specified file systems, building a table of current disk usage,then compares this table against the table stored in the disk quota file for the file system. Both the quota file and the current system copy of the incorrect quotas are updated if any inconsistencies are detected. the option to

specify the file system type under HP-UX is -F;

swapon :-Under HP-UX, the swapon command enables devices or file systems on which paging is to take place; swap devices are listed in the /etc/stab file.

swapinfo :-The swapinfo command displays information about device and file system paging space.

tunefs :-Use the tunefs command to alter dynamic parameters that affect the file system layout policies under HFS and UFS.

umount :-The umount command unmounts a file system.

vg* commands

The following commands are available for LVM operations on volume groups:


Vgvcfgbackup:- Create or update LVM volume group configuration backup file
vgvcfgrestore :-Display or restore LVM volume group configuration from backup file
vgchange :-Set LVM volume group availability
vgchgid :-Modify the Volume Group ID (VGID) on a given set of physical devices
vgcreate :-Create LVM volume group
vgdisplay :-Display information about LVM volume groups
vgexport :-Export an LVM volume group and its associated logical volumes
vgextend :-Extend an LVM volume group by adding physical volumes
vgimport :-Import an LVM volume group onto the system
vgreduce :-Remove physical volumes from an LVM volume group
vgremove :-Remove LVM volume group definition from the system
vgscan :-Scan physical volumes for LVM volume groups
vgsync :-Synchronize stale logical volume mirrors in LVM volume groups



vxdiskadm :-The vxdiskadm command provides a menu-driven interface to perform common VxVM disk administration tasks. The vxdiskadm command is an interactive script that prompts you for responses and supplies default values where appropriate.

vxtunefs :-The vxtunefs commands sets or prints tunable I/O parameters of mounted file systems; this command can set parameters describing the I/O properties of the underlying device, the parameters to indicate when to treat an I/O as direct I/O, or the parameters to control the extent allocation policy for the specified file system. Storage and File System Administration

The vx* commands

The following commands are available for LVM operations:


vxdiskusg :-Generate VxFS disk accounting data by user ID
vxdump :-rvxdump Incremental VxFS file system dump, local or across network
vxenablef :-Enable VxFS DMAPI or OnLineJFS functionality in the kernel
vxfsconvert :-Convert a file system to a VxFS file system
vxlicense :-VxFS and VxVM licensing key utility
Vxrestore :- rvxrestore Restore file system incrementally, local, or across network
vxupgrade :-Upgrade the disk layout of a VxFS file system



System Startup and Shutdown


shutdown -r 0 --> reboot
shutdown -h --> shutdown and halt
shutdown 0 --> shutdown to single user mode
reboot 0 --> reboot
Run Levels

The following table illustrates the similarity of the HP-UX and Tru64 UNIX run levels. Both operating systems allow the system administrator to define custom run levels.


Run Level HP-UX

0 Halt
S Single User State with only essential system services (NOTE: with this run level the console is maintained at the tty where init was run).
s Single User State with only essential system services
1 Starts a subset of essential system processes; the file systems in /etc/fstab are mounted. It can also be used to erform system administration tasks.
2 The operating mode is typically called "multi-user state". This mode allows all
users to access the system. Network and NFS client are enabled

3 Multi-User Mode. NFS and X Server enabled. In this mode, NFS file systems can
be exported, as required for NFS servers.

4 For HP VUE users. In this mode, HP VUE is active.
5 Definable
6 Definable
7 Definable
8 Definable
9 Definable


User and Group Account Administration


Default User Identifiers

User ID HP-UX
0 root
1 daemon
2 bin
3 sys
4 adm
5 uucp
6 not assigned
7 not assigned
8 not assigned
9 lp
10 not assigned
11 nuucp
12 not assigned
27 hpdb
30 www
40 webadmin
101 smbnull
60001 not assigned
65534 not assigned
-2 nobody



passwd :-This command enables you to change the password for a specified user.

useradd :-This command creates a user login on the system by adding the appropriate entry to the /etc/passwd file. HP-UX operating systems have the same options with the following exceptions:

-k skel_dir specifies the skeleton directory.

-b dir specifies the base directory.

usermod

This command modifies an existing user login on the system by changing the appropriate entry in the /etc/passwd file. HP-UX operating systems have the same options with the following exceptions:

-k skel_dir specifies the skeleton directory.

-f days specifies the number of days of continuous inactivity before the login is declared inactive.

userdel :-This command deletes a user login from the system.

-r options

groupadd :-This command creates a group on the system by adding the appropriate entry to the /etc/group file.

groupmod :-This command modifies an existing group account on the system by changing the appropriate entry in the /etc/group file.

groupdel :-This command deletes a group account from the system. There are no options in the HP-UX version of this command

Logs Files
/etc/rc.log Startup Log
/var/adm/sw/swagent.log Software package installation log
/var/adm/syslog/syslog.log System Error Log
/etc/shutdownlog Shutdown Log
/var/tombstones/ts99 Crash log